physiological responses of some marine, freshwater and terrestrial fungi to salinity. 1971.

by P. Byrne

Written in English
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Ph.D. thesis of the University of London.

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Open LibraryOL13659554M

The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. potentially novel organisms, many sequences are from fungi with close relatives from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environ-ments (8). To date, within subseafloor sediments, fungi have been identi-fied from a few centimeters below the seafloor (5) down to 1, m below the seafloor (mbsf) (15), but we are still eager to assess. The study of a few aspects of such interactions has been initiated as stated in some of the examples above (Ward et al., ; Amend et al., ) and some marine-derived fungi have been shown to alter their growth rates as a result of combined changes in salinity and . The primary producers in this chapter include some prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea and unicellular algae such as diatoms and dinoflagellates Marine fungi. Non photosynthetic, mostly multicellular organisms, many are decomposers There are about species of flat worms living in marine, freshwater and damp terrestrial.

One way to test these hypotheses is by collecting and isolating freshwater ascomycetes for use in molecular phylogenetic analyses of ascomycetes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer () suggested that extant marine fungi could be . The presence of fungi in oceanic waters and the deep sea has been sporadically reported in the past. Their presence in shells collected from deep-sea waters at a depth of 4, m was the first report on deep-sea fungi. Immunofluorescence has been widely used to detect specific fungi in terrestrial and in a few marine substrates.   Freshwater sediments, marine sediments, and soils cover the Earth's surface (Table ) and are critical links between the terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric realms (Figure ). These below-surface habitats are arguably the most diverse on the planet, teeming with a . Types of marine fungi. Unicellular (yeasts), multicellular (hyphae produces mycelium) Ecology of marine fungi. species, mostly are wood decomposers (diverse on marine algae and mangrove forests), lowest diversity on sand, live with plankton communities in the open sea. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE.

Fungi and other microbes have been isolated from terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments where salt content (salinity) varies from hyposaline to hypersaline. Examples of environmental extremes include hyposaline mountain lakes and streams (Barr ; Sparrow ), hypersaline salt lakes such as the Dead Sea (Kis-Papo et al. ; Kis.   Surveying the fungi of alkaline soils in Siberia, Trans-Baikal regions (Russia), the Aral lake (Kazakhstan), and Eastern Mongolia, we report an abundance of alkalitolerant species representing the Emericellopsis-clade within the Acremonium cluster of fungi (order Hypocreales).On an alkaline medium (pH ca. 10), 34 acremonium-like fungal strains were obtained.

physiological responses of some marine, freshwater and terrestrial fungi to salinity. 1971. by P. Byrne Download PDF EPUB FB2

Marine fungi: some factors influencing biodiversity (e.g. Amylocarpus encephaloides and Aniptodera chesapeakenis), while terrestrial and freshwater species may be able to grow at lower salinities (e.g. Chytridium citriforme, can tolerate great variation in salinity of the water.

Some marine fungi are common in occurrence (e.g. Thus, marine fungi are not a taxonomically, but an ecologically and physiologically defined group.

The number of fungi described worldwide is estimated at aro, but their total number may be as high as million species. Physiological responses of some marine, the share of marine fungi is a measly to only. Marine fungi comprise saprobic forms present in. Laboratory studies suggest that some marine fungi are best adapted for growth and reproduction in the oceanic salinity of waters where they are naturally found, while others can tolerate a wide.

Some marine fungi live only on exclusive substrata such as the digestive tracts of living marine amphipods, decapods and isopods. They are the commensals species to the host (Lichtwardt, ).

A wide range of substrata need to be studied in order to get a better picture of marine fungi that are available in the nature. Jones EBG, Byrne P, Alderman DJ () The response of fungi to salinity.

Vie Milieu Suppl – Google Scholar Kirk PW, Dyer BJ, Noé J () Hydrocarbon utilization by higher marine fungi from diverse habitats and : Patricia Velez.

Untilonly species of obligate marine fungi were described (Bernan et al. ); subsequently, marine mycology showed a remarkable development and the knowledge on marine fungal diversity was greatly expanded (Hyde et al. The Kohlmeyers’ definition of marine fungi, which was well suited to describe the fungi occurring.

Physiological studies of marine fungi have tended to concentrate on their salinity requirements (Meyers, ; Tubaki, ) and their ability to degrade wood (Jones, I). In the salinity studies, ion uptake and the effect of salinity on the vegetative growth of marine fungi only have been investigated.

INTRODUCTION. Soil salinity is a global problem that affects approx. 20 % of irrigated land and reduces crop yields significantly (Qadir et al., ).The physiological responses of a plant to salinity are often complex and multi-faceted, which makes experiments difficult to design and interpret.

Mycolo BREMER, G. (I )" Physiological responses of some Thraustochytrid fungi. Ver6ffent- lichungen des Instituts fiir Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, supplement 5, BYRYE, P.J. The physiological response of some marine, freshwater and terrestrial fungi to salinity.

Ph.D. Thesis, London University. Changing salinity is a master factor in the distribution of both marine and estuarine species and is limiting to freshwater organisms, hence salinity is fundamental with far-reaching effects in. Concurrent to the development of physiological responses of some marine field of marine mycology, there has been a voluminous output in natural product research from fungi isolated from substrata in different marine habitats, including marine animals, seaweeds and sediments, with many new bioactive compounds being described each year (Rateb and Ebel,Blunt et al.,Ebada and Proksch, ).

Se-Kwon Kim, Yong-Xin Li, in Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, II Diversity of Terpenoids Derived from Marine Fungi. Marine fungi contain a pronounced degree of structurally diversified terpenoids such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, triterpenes, steroids, and tetraterpenes.

Meroterpenoids are most often isolated from fungi and marine. Phytoplankton are some of the smallest marine organisms. Still, they are one of the most important players in the marine environment.

They are the basis of many marine food webs and, at the same time, sequester as much carbon dioxide as all terrestrial plants together.

As such, they are important players when it comes to ocean climate change. The dry weights of ten marine, one fresh-water and two terrestrial species in sea-water media showed that growth of the marine fungi is not markedly affected by variations in salinity and is much. Marine fungi are especially adept at living on or inside other living things like algae, corals, sponges and even other fungi.

Even primary producers like dinoflagellates and diatoms are commonly infected by marine fungi, a dynamic that might play an important role in global carbon cycles. While there are some abiotic and biotic factors in a terrestrial ecosystem that might obscure light (like fog, dust, or insect swarms), usually these are not permanent features of the environment.

The importance of light in aquatic biomes is central to the communities of organisms found in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

The study investigated the effects of salinity on growth, antimicrobial activities and secondary metabolites of 47 marine filamentous fungi isolated from the East China Sea near the western shore of the Taiwan Straits.

The results indicate that NaCl promoted the growth up to % of test strains. However, only % of them showed a significant increase of antimicrobial activity. Marine fungi are an ecological rather than a taxonomic group and comprise an estimated species, excluding those that form lichens.

They occur in most marine habitats and generally have a pantropical or pantemperate distribution. Marine fungi are major decomposers of woody and herbaceous substrates in marine ecosystems.

Their importance lies in their ability to aggressively degrade. While there are some abiotic and biotic factors in a terrestrial ecosystem that shade light (like fog, dust, or insect swarms), these are not usually permanent features of the environment. The importance of light in aquatic biomes is central to the communities of organisms found in both freshwater and marine ecosystems because it controls.

While some marine fungi require Na + for growth i.e. one fungal species growsat M NaCl in the Great Salt Lake, terrestrial fungi appear to have less of a requirement. defined strictly on a physiological basis where as, a broad ecological definition names that the marine fungi of obligate types are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine and estuarine habitat.

Facultative forms are those from fresh water or terrestrial milieus able to grow in the marine environment (Kohlmeyer, ). Osmobiosis is a form of cryptobiosis induced by elevated osmotic pressures. Some intertidal marine species and euryhaline limno-terrestrial species can tolerate variations in salinity.

However, most freshwater and terrestrial tardigrades form contracted tuns (barrel-shaped resistant forms) in various salt solutions (Wright et al., ).

During the spring and summer of48 species of geofungi and several sterile, unidentified fungi were isolated from two off-shore stations on the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Isolations were made from subsurface water and surface slicks on 6 agar media including one containing hexadecane, and from subsurface water baited with hemp seeds.

Numbers of fungi were 10 to times higher than those. The fungal kingdom is replete with unique adaptive capacities that allow fungi to colonize a wide variety of habitats, ranging from marine habitats to freshwater and terrestrial habitats.

The diversity, importance, and ecological roles of marine fungi have recently been highlighted in deep-subsurface sediments using molecular methods. Although, fungi can exhibit broad salt tolerance, higher fungal diversity is observed in brackish than in marine or freshwater environment (El-Sharouny et al., ; Mohamed and Martiny, ).

Marine fungi can also be classified by their ecology as facultative or obligate. Facultative marine fungi have physiologically adapted to the marine environment and can grow and most likely sporulate in seawater, yet may originate from terrestrial and freshwater habitats.

By contrast, obligate marine fungi originate from seawater and are. The salinity tolerance of some marine and freshwater cercariae has been investigated in France. Cercariae of Maritrema sp. ; Microphallus sp.

and a Tieterophyid species were obtained from the marine snail Hydrobia ulvae in Britanny, and Plagiorchis sp. cercariae were obtained from the freshwater snail Lymnaea auricularia near Rennes. The behaviour and survival of the marine species in water up.

Freshwater fish maintain the physiological mechanisms that permit them to concentrate salts within their bodies in a salt-deficient environment; marine fish, on the other hand, excrete excess.

Fungi of the Bay of Fundy Fungi of the Bay of Fundy Miller, J.; Whitney, N. During the spring and summer of48 species of geofungi and several sterile, unidentified fungi were isolated from two off-shore stations on the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Isolations were made from subsurface water and surface slicks on 6 agar media including one containing hexadecane, and from.

A stereological analysis of the response of cellular characteristics of hyphae of the marine hyphomycete Dendrvphietla satina to salinity is presented.

Analyses of volume fractions, compartmental volumes, membrane surface densities and membrane areas have been made. A major finding has been that the wall forms 40 "„ of the compartment volume. This definitive account of the biology of both lower and higher marine and estuarine fungi reflects the recent growth of interest in these fascinating plants.

The four main themes - ecology, taxonomy, physiology and industrial and applied biotechnology - are each covered by Reviews: 1. Introduction. The term marine-derived fungus can be traced back to the s (Wang et al.

; Christophersen et al. ).During the last 15 years, an avalanche of papers (Figure 1) have appeared describing fungal metabolites from strains of fungi isolated from oceans, ocean-dwelling animals, marine algae, shorelines and estuaries, and from marine–terrestrial transitional habitats.

Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds.

Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability.