Delayed reward in discrimination learning by chimpanzees

by Austin H. Riesen

Publisher: The Johns Hopkins press in Baltimore, Md

Written in English
Published: Pages: 54 Downloads: 938
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Subjects:

  • Pan troglodytes,
  • Problem Solving,
  • Psychology, Comparative,
  • Chimpanzees,
  • Animal intelligence

Edition Notes

StatementAustin H. Riesen ...
SeriesComparative psychology monographs -- v. 15, no. 5, serial no. 77
The Physical Object
Pagination1 p. l., 54 p. :
Number of Pages54
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14758368M
LC Control Number40010062
OCLC/WorldCa822838

A young chimpanzee uses a stem as a tool to remove termites from a termite mound, Gombe National Park, Tanzania. which had to be touched in ascending order to collect a fruit reward accompanied by the sounding of a chime. the empirical hallmarks of abstract conceptual thought—robust same-different discrimination learning and transfer. Animal cognition encompasses the mental capacities of non-human study of animal conditioning and learning used in this field was developed from comparative has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology; the alternative name cognitive ethology is sometimes used.. Many behaviors associated with the term. Several studies converge on the idea that executive processes age earlier than other cognitive processes. As part of a larger effort to investigate age-related changes in executive processes in the dog, inhibitory control was measured in young, middle-aged, old, and senior dogs using size discrimination learning and reversal procedures. Adaptive behavior requires the adjustment of one’s behavioral repertoire to situational demands. The learning of situationally appropriate choice behavior can be operationalized as a task of Conditional Discrimination Learning (CDL). CDL requires the acquisition of hierarchical reinforcement relations, which may pose a particular challenge for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity.

and capuchins and chimpanzees do so in the wild [23–25,33]. Also, our task involved the ability to take not only immediate but also future consequences into consideration, an ability that primates have repeatedly demonstrated in foraging experiments (delayed rewards experiments: [34,35]; planning experiments: [36–39]).   Cronin, P. B. () Reinstatement of postresponse stimuli priorto reward in delayed-reward discrimination learning by pigeons. Animal Learning & Behavior 8: – Crooks, R. C. () Magnitude of reward and preference in a delayed-reward situation. Research into great ape language has involved teaching chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans to communicate with humans and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, lexigrams (), and mimicking human primatologists argue that these primates' use of the communication tools indicates their ability to use "language", although this is not consistent with some. Helping in children and chimpanzees: The role of rewards and costs These video clips show examples from three experiments with month-old children and semi-free ranging chimpanzees. We found that both chimpanzees and human children helped altruistically, regardless of any expectation of reward .

Primate cognition is the study of the intellectual and behavioral skills of non-human primates, particularly in the fields of psychology, behavioral biology, primatology, and anthropology.. Primates are capable of high levels of cognition; some make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; some have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank. A. learning sometimes becomes apparent when there is some incentive to demonstrate it. B. reinforcement for a task already enjoyed can backfire, redicing intrinsic motivation. C. a continuous reinforcement schedule will lead to the most rapid learning. D. conditioned reinforcers get their power through learned associateion with primary reinforcers.   Kubrick’s film was a one-off, but “Apes” turned into a mini industry, with five films (), TV series (both live-action and animated), Tim Burton’s redo; and the three revived.   Humans follow the example of prestigious, high-status individuals much more readily than that of others, such as when we copy the behavior of village elders, community leaders, or celebrities. This tendency has been declared uniquely human, yet remains untested in other species. Experimental studies of animal learning have typically focused on the learning mechanism rather than on social.

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Delayed Reward in Discrimination Learning by Chimpanzees [Riesen, Austin H.] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Delayed Reward in Discrimination Learning by ChimpanzeesAuthor: Austin H.

Riesen. Get this from a library. Delayed reward in discrimination learning by chimpanzees. [Austin H Riesen]. Simple color discrimination in chimpanzees: Ef- Book. Jan ; E Lovejoy The results substantiate an earlier hypothesis explaining delayed reward discrimination learning in terms of Author: Mary Ann Metzger.

Eight rats were successfully trained in a black-white discrimination with a 1-min delay of reward. The procedure was unusual in that the rat spent the delay outside the apparatus in its home cage.

Immediately after the rat responded, whether correctly or incorrectly, it was removed from the choice compartment and placed in its home by: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY 3, () The Effect on Retardate Discrimination Learning of Various Stimuli Associated with Reward' JOSEPH DENEGRE2 University of Connecticut An hypothesis was tested which predicted the effect on two-choice, visual discrimination learning of four stimulus conditions associated with by: 1.

The performances of 80 third-grade children on either an easy or a difficult discrimination task were compared under two delay of punishment conditions, 0 or 20 sec. Punishment consisted of a 3-sec dB tone.

Immediate punishment resulted in better discrimination performance, i.e., fewer trials to criterion and more correct responses, than did delayed punishment. Experimental evidence indicates that chimpanzees meet these requirements (temporal discounting: Beran and Evans ; numerical discrimination: Hanus and Call ; memory/learning: Matsuzawa ).

In the wild, chimpanzees perform a variety of cooperative behaviors with unrelated partners, and the patterning of their interactions is consistent. According to the received view of the history of psychology, behaviorism so dominated psychology prior to the s that there was little research in animal cognition.

A review of the research on animal cognition during the s reveals a rich literature dealing with such topics as insight, reasoning, tool use, delay problems, oddity learning, abstraction, spatial cognition, and problem. Serial discrimination procedures are thus somewhat similar to verbal discrimination and verbal maze procedures used in human verbal learning research.

King and Goodman (), on the basis of an increase in stimulus perseveration errors as list length was increased up to four problems, suggested that the learning derived from nonreward trials. Professor Kohler observed chimpanzees discover a novel way to reach a Delayed reward in discrimination learning by chimpanzees book hung out of their reach.

This scenario is most likely an example of which type of learning. classical conditioning b. insight learning c. latent learning d. operant learning e. observational learning. Fragaszy, D.

() Comparative performance in discrimination learning tasks in two new world primates (Saimiri sciureus and Callicebus moloch).

Animal Learning and Behavior 9: – [AJ]. Schusterman, R. Successive discrimination-reversal training and multiple discrimination training in one-trial learning by chimpanzees.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology,58, – PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar. In chimpanzees, tokens were almost as effective as food rewards both in maintaining a high level of accuracy when performing an already acquired discrimination task and when learning a novel. After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed.

This best illustrates a. shaping. spontaneous recovery. respondent behavior. observational learning. positive reinforcement. Herbert S. Terrace (born 29 November ) is a Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at Columbia work covers a broad set of research interests that include behaviorism, animal cognition, ape language and the evolution of language.

He is the author of Nim () and Why Chimpanzees Can't Learn Language and Only Humans Can (). Terrace has made important contributions to. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed apes were more likely to chose to wait when faced with a one minute delay than a two minute delay (F 1,36 =papes were sensitive to the variation in delays and made tradeoffs between rewards and time costs.

In addition, chimpanzees were more likely to wait overall. Performance of infant rhesus monkeys on discrimination learning, delayed response, and discrimination learning set. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, HULL, C. Consistent with the argument that a reward-predicting signal could reduce this learning impairment, rats with a 5-s delayed reinforcement that was signalled by an immediate reward-predictor signal required significantly fewer trials (median of trials) to learn the discrimination task than the 5-s delayed reinforcement group without the.

The effects of reward schedule (%, 50%, and 30%) and termination of rewards (extinction) on 30 attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD-H) and 30 normal children were studied using measures of frustration (speed/strength of lever pulling) and attention (reaction time to a light signal).

ADD-Hs pulled harder on the lever than controls during extinction and on the lowest (30%. It highlighted the role of emotion in learning B. It demonstrated that many different species of animals, including humans, can be conditioned to adopt new behaviors C.

It proved an essential difference between animal and human learning D. It proved that all learning depends on reinforcement E. Chimpanzee and bonobo risk-sensitive strategies also map directly on to their decisions about delayed rewards.

Rosati et al. () assessed these apes' temporal preferences by offering subjects' choices between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Chimpanzees waited significantly longer than bonobos for the larger rewards.

reward and delays, chimpanzees are more willing wait to acquire. learning via feedback in a given session could have occurred. The discrimination of faces and their emotional content by. Visual discrimination learning with a 1-min delay of reward has been demonstrated in rats with a procedure in which the delay is spent in the home cage (Lett, ).

Two of the present experiments studied the effect of varying the length of delay on such visual discrimination learning. Recent decades have seen a number of influential attacks on the comparative psychology of learning and intelligence.

Two specific charges have been that the use of distantly related species has prevented us from making valid evolutionary inferences and that learning mechanisms are species-specific adaptations to ecological niches and hence not properly comparable between species.

Beran M. & Evans T. Maintenance of delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): The effects of delayed reward visibility, experimenter presence, and extended delay intervals. Behav. Process. 73, – (). [Google Scholar]. The chimpanzees either pressed a door-bell button during a trial and received one reward (the immediate reward) or did not press the doorbell and received another reward (the delayed reward.

Chimpanzees. Four chimpanzees housed at the Language Research Center at Georgia State University participated in this study: (Females: Lana – 41 years, Panzee – 26 years; Males: Sherman – 38 years, Mercury – 25 years old).All chimpanzees were housed together in the same building and spent time together in social groups daily, but they were observed separately during test sessions.

In general, the value of a delayed reward climbs more and more rapidly as the reward draws near Faced with a choice between 2 pellets of food available in 20 seconds and 3 pellets of food available in 30 seconds, the rat will likely choose the ___ alternative.

While bonobos and chimpanzees are both genetically and behaviorally very similar, they also differ in significant ways. Bonobos are more cautious and socially tolerant while chimpanzees are more dependent on extractive foraging, which requires tools.

The similarities suggest the two species should be cognitively similar while the behavioral differences predict where the two species should. In a discrimination learning task the organism is required to respond differentially to different stimuli In the operant conditioning paradigm responses to one stimulus (S+) are reinforced and response to another stimulus (S-) are punished or ignored.

This results in the emitting of the response in the presence of S+ but not with the presentation of S. To confirm that chimpanzees were sensitive to the delay, we next used a within-subjects analysis comparing individual chimpanzees' choices across both conditions.

Overall, chimpanzees chose the large reward more in the control condition [control condition = ± %, delay condition = ± %; paired t(18) =p. While it may be argued that the best evidence for object quality learning set formation is better than chance performance on Trial 2, (e.g., Thomas, ), widely used indicators of learning set are (a) increased efficiency in learning new discrimination problems or (b) increased efficiency in learning reversals of the same discrimination problem.After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the fIrst animal opens a similar box with great speed.

This best illustrates A) shaping. B) spontaneous recovery. C) respondent behavior. D) observational learning.